بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
As for as this topic is concerned, it has very much details and depth. Before going in the study of its origination and all history it is very much necessary to discuss Islam, its meaning and concept so that we may understand well.
ISLAM, ITS MEANINGS AND CONCEPTS
Islam is derived from the Arabic root “Salema” : peace, purity, submission and obedience. In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of ALLAH (Subhan wo Tahala) and obedience to His law.ALLAH (Subhana wo Tahala) has said in Surah Aal-e-Imran,
:اِنَّ الدِّیۡنَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ الۡاِسۡلَامُ
verse number 19
“Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam.”Islam in the Arabic language and in Quran means total submission and obedience.Allah says in the Holy Quran in Surah Aal-e-Imran,
اَفَغَیۡرَ دِیۡنِ اللّٰہِ یَبۡغُوۡنَ وَ لَہٗۤ اَسۡلَمَ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ طَوۡعًا وَّ کَرۡہًا وَّ اِلَیۡہِ یُرۡجَعُوۡن
Verse number 83:
“So is it other than the religion of Allah they desire, while to Him have submitted [all] those within the heavens and earth, willingly or by compulsion, and to Him they will be returned?”The word Islam has been used in the Holy Quran as a symbol for the Deen that was revealed to Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) and Allah clarified that He will not accept from man other deen even if it was from the previous divine deens.
ALLAH says in Surah Aal-e-Imran,
مَنۡ یَّبۡتَغِ غَیۡرَ الۡاِسۡلَامِ دِیۡنًا فَلَنۡ یُّقۡبَلَ مِنۡہُ ۚ وَ ہُوَ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ مِنَ الۡخٰسِرِیۡنَ
Verse number 85:
“And whoever desires other than Islam as religion – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.”Islam deals with all aspects of human life (Intellectual, belief, moral and practical) and this system is based on total submission to Allah alone and adopting all that is authentic from the prophet Muhammad (SAW).
According to the Holy Quran:
ؕ اَلۡیَوۡمَ اَکۡمَلۡتُ لَکُمۡ دِیۡنَکُمۡ وَ اَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ نِعۡمَتِیۡ وَ رَضِیۡتُ لَکُمُ الۡاِسۡلَامَ دِیۡنًا
Verse of the Quran (Chapter 5, Verse 3)
Translation:- “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion.”
Meaning of the word Deen
The word Deen is used in the Arabic language to give different meanings. The most important of these meanings are Subjugation, Authority, Ruling and Having Charge.These four linguistic meanings constitute the concept of the word “Deen” in the Holy Quran where it implies a comprehensive system of life that is composed of four parts:
1) The rule and the authority belong to Allah.
2) The obedience and submission to this ruler ship and authority by those who embraced this “Deen”.
3) The comprehensive system (Intellectual and practical) established by this Authority (Allah).
4) The reward given by this Authority (Allah) to those that followed the system and submitted to it and the punishment inflicted upon those who rebel against it and disobey it.Based on this definition of “Deen”,
We can summarize that deen is a submission, following the worship by man for the Creator, the Ruler in a comprehensive system of life with all its belief, intellectual, moral and practical aspects.
I think it is little bit cleared about Islam meaning, its concept and Deen. Now we move to origination.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic and developments of Islamicate civilization. Despite concerns about the reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE, approximately 600 years after the founding of Christianity.
Muslims, however, believe that it did not start with Muhammad, but that it was the original faith of others whom they regard as prophets, such as Jesus, David, Moses, Abraham, Noah and Adam.
In 610 CE, Hazrat Muhammad (SAW!) began receiving what Muslims consider to be! divine revelations.Muhammad’s (SAW!) message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from Mecca notables.
In 622, a few years after losing protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib,The Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) migrated to the city of Yathrib (now known as Medina).
With Muhammad’s death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.
The Umayyad Caliphate
By the 8th century,the umayyad caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads (in the Middle East and later in Iberia), Abbasids, Fatimids, and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world.
The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers during the Middle Ages.The Prophet Muhammad (SAW!) was born in Mecca around the year 570.His family belonged to the Quraysh.
When he was about forty years old he began receiving what Muslims regard as divine revelations delivered through the angel Gabriel, which would later form the Quran.
These inspirations enjoined him to proclaim a strict monotheistic faith, to warn his compatriots of the impending Judgement Day, and to castigate social injustices of his city.
Muhammad’s message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from notables of Mecca.In 622, a few years after losing protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib, Muhammad migrated to the city of Yathrib (subsequently called Medina) where he was joined by his followers.
Later generations would count this event, known as the hijra, as the start of the Islamic era.In Yathrib, where He was accepted as an arbitrator among the different communities of the city under the terms of the Constitution of Medina, Hazrat Muhammad (SAW!) began to lay the foundations of the new Islamic society, with the help of new Quranic verses which provided guidance on matters of law and religious observance.
The surahs of this period emphasized his place among the long line of Biblical prophets, but also differentiated the message of the Quran from Christianity and Judaism.
Armed conflict with Meccans and Jewish tribes of the Yathrib area soon broke out. After a series of military confrontations and political manoeuvres, The great Muhammad (SAW!) was able to secure control of Mecca and allegiance of the Quraysh in 629.
In the time remaining until his death in 632, tribal chiefs across the peninsula entered into various agreements with him, some under terms of alliance, others acknowledging his prophethood and agreeing to follow Islamic practices, including paying the alms levy to his government, which consisted of a number of deputies, an army of believers, and a public treasury.
A few months before his death, Hazrat Muhammad (SAW!) delivered a sermon regarding his succession.Verse of the Quran (Chapter 5, Verse 3)
اَلۡیَوۡمَ اَکۡمَلۡتُ لَکُمۡ دِیۡنَکُمۡ وَ اَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ نِعۡمَتِیۡ وَ رَضِیۡتُ لَکُمُ الۡاِسۡلَامَ دِیۡنًا
Was revealed after Muhammad finished his sermon.
Which can be translated like this : _”This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion.”_
After the sermon, Hazrat Muhammad (SAW!) ordered the Muslims to pledge allegiance to Ali; the future Sunni leaders Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were among those who pledged allegiance to Ali at this event.After all this history the following caliphate started.
a) Hazrat Abu Bakar Sadiq (RA) b) Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA) c) Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) d) Hazrat Ai (RA)
After this caliphate Umayyad calibrate came into existence.The very next was Islamic Golden Age, Fatimid caliphate and so on.
The history of Islam is very much vast.It is not possible to explain all these in one article so we have just explained the first era.
Some sort of questions may be produced in your mind like what are the distinctive aspects of Islam? And many more like these questions so we are here to clarify these sort of questions.After enough discussion about the origination of Islam so let’s talk about the distinctive aspects of Islam so that we may follow Islam in a better way.
Distinctive Aspects of Islam
Islam is the name of Religion sent by Allah through all His Messengers. Each of these Messengers spoke to the people, among whom it came, according to their own language and understanding.
Islam in its latest form as brought by the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW!) is superior to others.
However, it has to be understood that Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad SAW! added the last brick to the house of religion. It confirms the others, summarises them, rectifies misunderstandings and corruptions and restores what was lost and adds to them.
It is superior to others.The Quran tells us:-
اٰمَنَ الرَّسُوۡلُ بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡہِ مِنۡ رَّبِّہٖ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ؕ کُلٌّ اٰمَنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ مَلٰٓئِکَتِہٖ وَ کُتُبِہٖ وَ رُسُلِہٖ ۟ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَیۡنَ اَحَدٍ مِّنۡ رُّسُلِہٖ ۟ وَ قَالُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا وَ اَطَعۡنَا ٭۫ غُفۡرَانَکَ رَبَّنَا وَ اِلَیۡکَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۲۸۵
The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers.
All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.” (Surah Al Baqara Ayat 285).
In Surat Maeda ayat no 48 it is said:
وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ مِنَ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ مُہَیۡمِنًا عَلَیۡہِ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَہُمۡ بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعۡ اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ عَمَّا جَآءَکَ مِنَ الۡحَقِّ ؕ لِکُلٍّ جَعَلۡنَا مِنۡکُمۡ شِرۡعَۃً وَّ مِنۡہَاجًا ؕ
وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ لَجَعَلَکُمۡ اُمَّۃً وَّاحِدَۃً وَّ لٰکِنۡ لِّیَبۡلُوَکُمۡ فِیۡ مَاۤ اٰتٰىکُمۡ فَاسۡتَبِقُوا الۡخَیۡرٰتِ ؕ اِلَی اللّٰہِ مَرۡجِعُکُمۡ جَمِیۡعًا فَیُنَبِّئُکُمۡ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ تَخۡتَلِفُوۡنَ
“And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth.
To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good.
To Allah is your return all together, and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differ.”
In Surah Hajj ayat no 67, ALLAH (Subhana wo Tahala) said
:لِکُلِّ اُمَّۃٍ جَعَلۡنَا مَنۡسَکًا ہُمۡ نَاسِکُوۡہُ فَلَا یُنَازِعُنَّکَ فِی الۡاَمۡرِ وَ ادۡعُ اِلٰی رَبِّکَ ؕ اِنَّکَ لَعَلٰی ہُدًی مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ
“For every religion We have appointed rites which they perform. So, [O Muhammad], let the disbelievers not contend with you over the matter but invite them to your Lord. Indeed, you are upon straight guidance.”
After the distinctive aspects the basic concept of Islam is given under-mentioned.
If you do not know the basic concept of Islam how you will be able to understand Islam in a right way.
BASIC CONCEPT OF ISLAM
In Arabic, Islam literally means submission but when the term is used in a religious context, it means submission to ALLAH (Subhana Wo Tahala).
As there is.nothing in the universe, right from lifeless objects to human beings and angels, which does not submit to its Creator or is not subject to the inherent or optional injunctions, the question of Islam or being a Muslim is not restricted to man alone but covers the entire universe.
Here is another verse of the Quran which refers to the same fact in different words:
In Surah Bana-e-Israel Ayaat number 44, ALLAH (Subhana wo Tahala) said:
تُسَبِّحُ لَہُ السَّمٰوٰتُ السَّبۡعُ وَ الۡاَرۡضُ وَ مَنۡ فِیۡہِنَّ ؕ وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ اِلَّا یُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِہٖ وَ لٰکِنۡ لَّا تَفۡقَہُوۡنَ تَسۡبِیۡحَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ حَلِیۡمًا غَفُوۡرًا
Translation:- “The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [ Allah ] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving.
“In another verse of the Holy Quran in Surah Hajj Ayaat no 18 it has said:
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَسۡجُدُ لَہٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَنۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الشَّمۡسُ وَ الۡقَمَرُ وَ النُّجُوۡمُ وَ الۡجِبَالُ وَ الشَّجَرُ وَ الدَّوَآبُّ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ ؕ وَ کَثِیۡرٌ حَقَّ عَلَیۡہِ الۡعَذَابُ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّہِنِ اللّٰہُ فَمَا لَہٗ مِنۡ مُّکۡرِمٍ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَفۡعَلُ مَا یَشَآءُ
Translation:- “Do you not see that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth and the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, the moving creatures and many of the people?
But upon many the punishment has been justified. And he whom Allah humiliates – for him there is no bestower of honor. Indeed, Allah does what He wills.
“These verses make it obvious that it is not one or two particular categories who praise and glorify Allah (Subhana wo Tahala) but everything (of course), the sky, the earth, the moon, the sun, the stars, the planets, the air, and the water, the trees, the plants, the birds and the beast, men and Jinns.
In short, every creature from atom to the sun, big or small, animate or inaminate, wise or unwise praises ALLAH (Subhana wo Tahala!) And submits to HIM only.Being a Human we should think for a while *where we stand?*This question is your assignment.
Note:– This article is all about research based. If you go thorough any sort of mistake you are requested to convey through our given mentioned emails. And don’t forget to share with your kith and kins and others.Thanks!JazakAllah khair!
Written By: Syed Ihtisham Ul Haq Bin Mulvi Muh Khwaja Din